Accumulation of bile pigments in the tissues, which in the examination can be seen by the yellow tone of the skin and the conjunctiva, which occurs when there is an obstacle, to the evacuation of the bile, in the bile canaliculus under the microscope (for example , due to primary biliary cirrhosis), in the intrahepatic bile ducts (for example, by sclerosing cholangitis) or in the main bile ducts (for example, choledocholithiasis, tumors, etc.).
The latter group of pathologies are the most frequent and are diagnosed by an increase in bilirubin in the blood, with a predominance of the conjugate or direct form, and the dilation of the bile duct on ultrasound.
Acute cholangitis: Resuscitation, antibiotics and bile duct drainage. Cholecystectomized with residual choledocholithiasis: Ideally endoscopically. Malignant obstructions: Cancers of the head of the pancreas or of the ampulla of Vater or of the distal bile duct ideally in the surgical form if curative surgery can be offered. In very advanced tumors, endoscopic or percutaneous prostheses are preferred. Patients in intermediate conditions, surgical palliative treatments.